Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. Cardiovascular disease includes coronary artery diseases (CAD) such as angina and myocardial infarction (commonly known as a heart attack). Other CVDs include stroke, heart failure, hypertensive heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, cardiomyopathy, heart arrhythmia, congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, carditis, aortic aneurysms, and many more.
What Is High Blood Pressure?
Blood pressure is the force in the arteries when the heart beats (systolic pressure) and when the heart is at rest (diastolic pressure). It's measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg). High blood pressure (or hypertension) is defined in an adult as a blood pressure greater than or equal to 140 mmHg systolic pressure or greater than or equal to 90 mmHg diastolic pressure.
High blood pressure directly increases the risk of coronary heart disease (which leads to heart attack) and stroke, especially when it's present with other risk factors.
High blood pressure can occur in children or adults, but it's more common among people over age 35.
It's particularly prevalent in African Americans, middle-aged and elderly people, obese people, heavy drinkers and women taking birth control pills. It may run in families, but many people with a strong family history of high blood pressure never have it. People with diabetes mellitus, gout or kidney disease are more likely to have high blood pressure, too.
What are the symptoms of high blood pressure?
High blood pressure is sometimes called the silent killer because it usually has no warning signs or symptoms. Many people do not know that they have high blood pressure.
That’s why it's important to get your blood pressure checked regularly.
What causes high blood pressure?
While the cause of high blood pressure in most people remains unclear, a variety of conditions - such as getting little or no exercise, poor diet, obesity, older age, and genetics - can lead to hypertension.
What is systolic and diastolic blood pressure?
The blood pressure reading is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is written as systolic pressure, the force of the blood against the artery walls as your heart beats, over diastolic pressure, the blood pressure between heartbeats. For example, a blood pressure reading is written as 120/80 mmHg, or 120 over 80. The systolic pressure is 120 and the diastolic pressure is 80.
What is a normal blood pressure?
"Normal" blood pressure is systolic pressure less than 120 and diastolic pressure less than 80 mmHg
"Prehypertension" is systolic pressure of120-139 or diastolic pressure of 80-89 mmHg
"Stage 1" Hypertension is blood pressure greater than systolic pressure of 140-159 or diastolic pressure of 90-99 mmHg or greater.
"Stage 2" Hypertension is systolic pressure of 160 or greater or diastolic pressure of 100 or greater.
What health problems are asscoiated with high blood pressure?
Several potentially serious health conditions are linked to high blood pressure, including:
Atherosclerosis: a disease of the arteries caused by a build up of plaque, or fatty material, on the inside walls of the blood vessels. Hypertension contributes to this build up by putting added stress and force on the artery walls.
Heart Disease: heart failure (the heart can't adequately pump blood), ischemic heart disease (the heart tissue doesn't get enough blood), and hypertensive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (enlarged heart) are all associated with high blood pressure.
Kidney Disease:Hypertension can damage the blood vessels and filters in the kidneys, so that the kidneys cannot excrete waste properly.
Stroke: Hypertension can lead to stroke, either by contributing to the process of atherosclerosis (which can lead to blockages and/or clots), or by weakening the blood vessel wall and causing it to rupture.
Eye Disease: Hypertension can damage the very small blood vessels in the retina.
What do i know if i have blood pressure?
High blood pressure often doesn't have any symptoms, so you usually don't feel it.
For that reason, hypertension is usually diagnosed by a health care professional on a routine visit. This is especially important if you have a close relative who has hypertension or embody risk factors for it.
If your blood pressure is extremely high, you may have unusually strong headaches, chest pain, and heart failure (especially difficulty breathing and poor exercise tolerance). If you have any of these symptoms, seek treatment immediately.
Recommended blood pressure levels:
Optimal: <120 and <80
Normal: 120-129 or 80-84
High-normal: 130-139 or 85-89
Grade 1 Hypertension (mild): 140-159 or 90-99
Grade 2 Hypertension (moderate): 160-179 or 100-109
Grade 3 Hypertension: 180 or higher or 100 or higher
How does high blood pressure develop?
Your heart pumps blood through the body's arteries. The large arteries that leave your heart taper into smaller arteries called arterioles. The arterioles then taper into smaller vessels called capillaries, which supply oxygen and nutrients to all the organs of your body. The blood then returns to your heart through the veins.
Certain nerve impulses cause your arteries to dilate (become larger) or contract (become smaller). If these vessels are wide open, blood can flow through easily. If they're narrow, it's harder for the blood to flow through them, and the pressure inside them increases. Then high blood pressure may occur. When this happens, your heart becomes strained and blood vessels may become damaged. Changes in the vessels that supply blood to your kidneys and brain may cause these organs to be affected.
Your heart, brain and kidneys can handle increased pressure for a long time. That's why you can live for years without any symptoms or ill effects. But that doesn't mean it's not hurting you. High blood pressure is a major risk factor for stroke, heart attack, heart failure and kidney failure.
What does high blood pressure do to your body?
High blood pressure adds to the workload of your heart and arteries. Your heart must pump harder, and the arteries carry blood that's moving under greater pressure.
If high blood pressure continues for a long time, your heart and arteries may not work as well as they should. Other body organs may also be affected. There is increased risk of stroke, congestive heart failure, kidney failure and heart attack. When high blood pressure exists with obesity,smoking,high blood cholesterol or diabetes, the risk of heart attack or stroke increases several times.
What about low blood pressure?
Within certain limits, the lower your blood pressure reading is, the better.
In most people, blood pressure isn't too low until it produces symptoms, such as light headedness or fainting.
In certain disease states, it's possible for blood pressure to be too low.
1.Certain nerve or endocrine disorders.
2.Prolonged bed rest.
3.Decreases in blood volume due to severe bleeding (hemorrhage) or dehydration.
Blood pressure less than 120/80 mmHg is generally considered ideal. Levels higher than this increase your risk for cardiovascular disease. If you have unusually low blood pressure, have it evaluated.
What can you do to reduce your risk?
There are several things that you can do to keep your blood pressure in a healthy range:
1.Get your blood pressure checked regularly.
2.Eat a healthy diet.
3.Maintain a health weight.
4.Be physically active.
5.Limit alcohol use.
7.Prevent or treat diabetes.
Upper arm or Wrist type monitors?
Both types give accurate and reliable results.
Upper arm monitors are used in a more traditional way and are ideal for home use, while wrist monitors are smaller and can be more practical to carry or for travelling.
SPO2 & HEART RATE
The World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Association of Cardiologists emphasize that regular measurement of heart rate is especially recommended for adults over 50 years as a preventive action to aid in early detection of cardiovascular disease or aggravation of the existing disease. A home-use pulse oximeter can serve as valid instruments for the assessment of heart rate in healthy adults.
Which conditions affect the Oxygen Saturation?
Blood disorders, circulatory problems, and lung issues may negatively affect your blood oxygen saturation level, as they may prevent you from adequately absorbing or transporting oxygen. Examples of conditions that can affect your O2saturation level include:
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including emphysema and chronic bronchitis.
Collapsed lung (pneumothorax).
Heart disease (In relate to BPM, ex: PARR function).
Congenital heart defects.
How to measure Blood Oxygen?
The most common method of measuring oxygen saturation is pulse oximetry. It is an easy, painless, non-invasive method wherein a probe is placed on the fingertip or earlobe to measure the oxygen saturation indirectly.
Why measure SpO2?
Measurement of oxygen saturation is particularly important for patients with health conditions that can reduce the level of oxygen in the blood. These conditions include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, pneumonia, lung cancer, anemia, heart failure, heart attack, and other cardiopulmonary disorders.
For adults, the normal range of SpO2is 95 – 100%. A value lower than 90% is considered low oxygen saturation, which requires external oxygen supplementation.
What happens when oxygen saturation is low?
The most common symptoms of hypoxemia include headache, rapid heart rate, coughing, shortness of breath, wheezing, confusion, and blueness of the skin and mucus membranes (cyanosis).
A drop in oxygen saturation below the critical level should be treated with oxygen supplementation. Depending on the severity of the condition, a physician can prescribe supplemental oxygen, which has the most direct effect on the oxygen saturation level. Under clinical use, technical mishaps such as circuit disconnection, airway dislodgement or obstruction, or inadequate oxygen administration were identified sooner and providers could respond before adverse events occurred.
How to improve blood oxygen levels?
Eating a healthy and balanced diet can also help improve blood oxygen saturation. Since iron deficiency is one of the major causes of low oxygen saturation,
eating foods that are rich in iron, such as meat, fish, kidney beans, lentils, and cashew nuts, can be helpful.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly known as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications. Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death. Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.
What is Diabetes?
Diabetes is a disease that occurs when your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high.
Blood glucose is your main source of energy and comes from the food you eat. Insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas, helps glucose from food get into your cells to be used for energy. Sometimes your body doesn’t make enough - or any - insulin or doesn’t use insulin well.
Glucose then stays in your blood and doesn’t reach your cells.
Over time, having too much glucose in your blood can cause health problems. Although diabetes has no cure, you can take steps to manage your diabetes and stay healthy. Sometimes people call diabetes a touch of sugar or borderline diabetes. These terms suggest that someone doesn’t really have diabetes or has a less serious case, but every case of diabetes is serious.
What are the symptoms of diabetes?
Symptoms of diabetes include:
increased thirst and urination.
numbness or tingling in the feet or hands.
sores that do not heal.
unexplained weight loss.
Symptoms of type 1 diabetes can start quickly, in a matter of weeks.
Symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly - over the course of several years - and can be so mild that you might not even notice them. Many people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms. Some people do not find out they have the disease until they have diabetes-related health problems, such as blurred vision or heart trouble.
What are the different types of diabetes?
The most common types of diabetes are type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes - If you have type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin. Your immune system attacks and destroys the cells in your pancreas that make insulin. Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and young adults, although it can appear at any age. People with type 1 diabetes need to take insulin every day to stay alive.
Type 2 diabetes - If you have type 2 diabetes, your body does not make or use insulin well. You can develop type 2 diabetes at any age, even during childhood. However, this type of diabetes occurs most often in middle-aged and older people. Type 2 is the most common type of diabetes.
Gestational diabetes - Gestational diabetes develops in some women when they are pregnant. Most of the time, this type of diabetes goes away after the baby is born. However, if you’ve had gestational diabetes, you have a greater chance of developing type 2 diabetes later in life. Sometimes diabetes diagnosed during pregnancy is actually type 2 diabetes.
Other types of diabetes - Less common types include monogenic diabetes, which is an inherited form of diabetes, and cystic fibrosis-related diabetes.
What causes type 1 diabetes?
Type 1 diabetes occurs when your immune system, the body’s system for fighting infection, attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas.
Scientists think type 1 diabetes is caused by genes and environmental factors, such as viruses, that might trigger the disease.
Studies such as TrialNet are working to pinpoint causes of type 1 diabetes and possible ways to prevent or slow the disease.
What causes type 2 diabetes?
Type 2 diabetes - the most common form of diabetes - is caused by several factors, including lifestyle factors and genes.
Overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity - You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you are not physically active and are overweight or obese. Extra weight sometimes causes insulin resistance and is common in people with type 2 diabetes. The location of body fat also makes a difference. Extra belly fat is linked to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and heart and blood vessel disease. To see if your weight puts you at risk for type 2 diabetes, check out these Body Mass Index (BMI) charts.
Insulin resistance - Type 2 diabetes usually begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which muscle, liver, and fat cells do not use insulin well. As a result, your body needs more insulin to help glucose enter cells. At first, the pancreas makes more insulin to keep up with the added demand. Over time, the pancreas can’t make enough insulin, and blood glucose levels rise.
Who is more likely to develop type 2 diabetes?
You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you are age 45 or older, have a family history of diabetes, or are overweight.
Physical inactivity, race, and certain health problems such as high blood pressure also affect your chance of developing type 2 diabetes.
You are also more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you have prediabetes or had gestational diabetes when you were pregnant. Learn more about risk factors for type 2 diabetes.
What health problems can people with diabetes develop?
Over time, high blood glucose leads to problems such as:
Fever is one of the body's defence mechanisms. When bacteria or viruses get into your body and cause it to malfunction, the body goes on the defensive and your immune system is activated. When this happens, a central nerve in the brain allows the heat generated inside the body to be turned up from the usually constant level. This higher temperature level increases the metabolism and prevents the increase of pathogenic agents.
What is the normal temperature?
Normal temperature is usually around 37 °C (98,6 °F).
However, normal temperature is not the same for every individual. Temperature can vary with age, and even time of day. Usually it is lowest in the morning, highest in the afternoon and somewhat lower at bedtime.
Why measure body temperature?
It is of great medical importance to measure body temperature. The reason is that a number of diseases are accompanied by characteristic changes in body temperature. Likewise, the course of certain diseases can be monitored by measuring body temperature, and the efficiency of a treatment initiated can be evaluated by the physician.
Fever is a reaction to disease-specific stimuli, where the set point of the temperature control centre is varied to promote the body's defenses against the disease process.
Fever is the most common form of pathological (disease- related) elevation on body temperature.
How accurate are thermometer measurements?
Essentially a distinction must be made between the technical accuracy of the thermometer itself and the clinical accuracy in use in taking a temperature. The former is determined under idealized conditions to guarantee the quality of the instrument, taking the relevant technical standards into account.
An accuracy of +/- 0.1°C can be considered state of the art for high-grade thermometers.
The user must not confuse technical accuracy with this accuracy in use. The human body temperatures described here, which depend on the measurement location and time, are due to physiological causes and are not due to a thermometer malfunction.
Where should I take the temperature?
Rectal- The most reliable core temperature is obtained by inserting a thermometer into the rectum (rectal measurement). This measurement is accurate and has low scattering in the results. The normal range is approximately: 36.2°C - 37.7°C.
Vaginal- In women, vaginal temperature measurement yields a slight underestimate of temperature by an average of 0.1°C to 0.3°C in comparison with a rectal measurement with comparable stability.
Ear- Ear thermometers measure the temperature of the eardrum with an infrared sensor. The tip of the thermometer is simply positioned in the ear channel and results are obtained in one second! Next to its convenience this method is very reliable if accuracy can be proven by a clinical validation. Well designed ear thermometers perform very accurately without great scattering in results. An optimised tip shape is the basis for reliable data obtained with infants and babies.
Oral- The oral measurement can be performed as buccal measurement (in the cheek) or as a sublingual measurement (under the tongue). Both measurements underestimate the rectal temperature by approximately 0.3°C - 0.8° C, with the sublingual measurement being preferable to the buccal.
Temple- Temple thermometers offer the least intrusive and therefore most comfortable way to measure body temperature. Simply place the thermometer onto the patient's temple and an infrared sensor detects the peak reading, while a second sensor measures the ambient temperature. The difference in these readings is analysed, and according to clinically established offsets, a body temperature reading is determined and displayed on the LCD.
Armpit- Body surface temperature measurements used clinically in practice are in the arm pit (axillary measurement) and in the groin. In both cases the respective limb is pressed against the body in order to reduce any ambient temperature influence. However, this is successful only to a limited extent with the disadvantage that the measurement time is long. In adults, the axillary measurement is lower than the rectal by approximately 0.5°C to 1.5°C! In infants, these underestimates in comparison with the rectal temperature are much smaller.
What is important when taking temperature?
Essentially, it is true that the measured body temperature always depends on where it is measured.
Therefore, contrary to popular consensus, there is no simple "normal" temperature. Furthermore, a healthy person's body temperature will vary with activity and time during the day. In a rectal temperature measurement, a typical temperature difference of 0.5°C between the higher evening temperatures is physiological.
Body temperature is typically elevated after physical activity.
Roughly speaking, a distinction is made between a core temperature and a surface, where the surface temperature is measured at the skin surface and is a mixed temperature between the body's core temperature and the ambient temperature.
The core temperature is measured by inserting a thermometer into a body cavity, which yields the temperature of the mucous tissue.
Respiratory disease is a medical term that encompasses pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues that make gas exchange possible in higher organisms, and includes conditions of the upper respiratory tract, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, pleura and pleural cavity, and the nerves and muscles of breathing. Respiratory diseases range from mild and self-limiting, such as the common cold, to life-threatening entities like bacterial pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, acute asthma and lung cancer.
What happens during breathing?
We breathe in and out over 20,000 times a day.
When inhaling, the chest rises and the diaphragm expands downward, creating a partial vacuum in the chest. This vacuum draws the inhaled air into the upper and lower respiratory passages.
When exhaling, the lungs and chest return to their initial position and the spent air is expelled from the body via the respiratory passages. Respiration is accurately adjusted to the current metabolic condition - for example, physical rest or activity -by the so-called respiratory centre of the brain.
What is pulmonary emphysema?
Pulmonary emphysema, permanent distension of the small air sacs, is characterized by these small air sacs bursting.
There is respiratory distress in all forms of emphysema.
What is Asthma?
Asthma becomes apparent by frequent, spasmodic gasping for air and wheezing. As with chronic bronchitis, the bronchi are inflamed and obstructed with phlegm while the cilia are conglutinated. The respiratory passages also respond to certain stimuli with muscular spasms, often caused by allergens such as pollen or house dust, but also stress and environmental pollution.
What is Bronchitis?
With bronchitis the bronchial mucus membrane is inflamed.
If this persists for a lengthy period, it is referred to as chronic bronchitis. Constant coughing, impaired breathing,excess mucus and sputum are typical symptoms.
How can respiratory disorders be obtained?
Some relief for respiratory disorders can often be obtained by eliminating the causes of allergic reactions, such as by avoiding pollen and keeping the home free of dust.
It is also strongly recommended to avoid smoking.